The depiction of Christ Pantocrator, the “Almighty“ or “all-powerful”” is considered the archetype of all icons. Through the Incarnation, Christ himself is the word and the image, the word of inexpressible mysteries and the image of the invisible God. At the Council of Nicea in 325 it was affirmed that Christ is the visible and perfect image of the Father. The image of the Pantocrator becomes a symbol of the iconoclast in the Byzantine Church. John of Damascus, among others, defended the portrayal. In the Western Church there is a similar motif, more reminiscent of secular rulers, the Majestas Domini (“Glory of the Lord”).
On this icon Christ is enthroned. Around the symbols of the four evangelists: angel, eagle, lion and bull, their origin in the biblical visions of Ezekiel (Old Testament) and John (New Testament). In the Revelation of John of the open heaven (Apk 4.1–11) the evangelist saw the throne of the Almighty surrounded by four mysterious living beings, each with six wings. For the first time, this image idea was implemented in Roman mosaics. The final and now common assignment of symbols to the evangelists goes to the church father Hieronymus in the 4th century. back: the lion stands for Mark, the bull for Luke, the eagle for John and the man (angel) for Matthew. Jerome also established the chronological order of the Gospels in the New Testament.